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Arctic Report Card: Update for 2016

Persistent warming trend and loss of sea ice are triggering extensive Arctic changes

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Arctic Essays


Surface Air Temperature

Acosta Navarro, J. C. et al. (2016), Amplification of Arctic warming by past air pollution reductions in Europe. Nature Geosci. 9, 277-281.

Hanna, E., Cropper, T. E., Hall, R. J. and Cappelen, J. (2016), Greenland Blocking Index 1851-2015: a regional climate change signal. Int. J. Climatol., doi: 10.1002/joc.4673.

Makshtas A. P., I. I. Bolshakova, R. M. Gun, O. L. Jukova, N. E. Ivanov, and S. V. Shutilin, 2011: Climate of the Hydrometeorological Observatory Tiksi region. In Meteorological and Geophysical Investigations. Paulsen, 2011, 49-74.

Nordli, Ö, R. Przybylak, A. E. J. Ogilvie, and K. Isaksen (2014) Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898-2012. Polar Res., 33, 21349.

Notz, D., and J. Stroeve, (2016), Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO2 emission. Science, 10.1126/DOI: 10.1126/science.aag2345.

Overland, J. E., 2009: The case for global warming in the Arctic. In Influence of Climate Change on the Changing Arctic and Sub-Arctic Conditions, J. C. J. Nihoul and A. G. Kostianoy (eds.), Springer, 13-23.

Overland, J. E., E. Hanna, I. Hanssen-Bauer, B. -M. Kim, S. -J. Kim, J. Walsh, M. Wang, and U. Bhatt, 2015: Air Temperature. In Arctic Report Card: Update for 2015,

Overland, J. E., and M. Wang (2016): Recent extreme Arctic temperatures are due to a split polar vortex. J. Climate, 29(15), 5609-5616, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0320.1.

Pithan, F. and T. Mauritsen, 2014: Arctic amplification dominated by temperature feedbacks in contemporary climate models. Nature Geoscience, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2071.

Serreze, M., and R. Barry, 2011: Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis. Global and Planetary Change, 77, 85-96.

Terrestrial Snow Cover

Brasnett, B., 1999: A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 726-740.

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally, 1996, updated yearly: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1 [1979-2014]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center.

Derksen, C., R. Brown, L. Mudryk, and K. Luojus, 2016: Terrestrial Snow (Arctic). In State of the Climate in 2015. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 97, S145-S147.

Estilow, T. W., A. H. Young, and D. A. Robinson, 2015: A long-term Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data record for climate studies and monitoring. Earth Sys. Sci. Data, 7.1: 137-142.

Helfrich, S., D. McNamara, B. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta, 2007: Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrol. Process., 21, 1576-1586.

Maslanik, J. and J. Stroeve, 1999, updated daily: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations, Version 1. [September 2015]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center.

Takala, M., K. Luojus, J. Pulliainen, C. Derksen, J. Lemmetyinen, J. -P. Kärnä, and J. Koskinen, 2011: Estimating northern hemisphere snow water equivalent for climate research through assimilation of space-borne radiometer data and ground-based measurements. Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 3517-3529.

Thackeray, C., C. Fletcher, L. Mudryk, and C. Derksen, In press: Quantifying the uncertainty in historical and future simulations of Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover. J. Clim. doi:

Greenland Ice Sheet

Box, J. E. and K. Hansen, 2015. Survey of Greenland glacier area changes, PROMICE newsletter 8, December 2015,

Box, J. E., X. Fettweis, J. C. Stroeve, M. Tedesco, D. K. Hall, and K. Steffen, 2012. Greenland ice sheet albedo feedback: thermodynamics and atmospheric drivers. The Cryosphere, 6, 821-839, doi:10.5194/tc-6-821-2012.

Cappelen (ed), 2016. Greenland - DMI Historical Climate Data Collection 1784-2015. Danish Meteorol. Inst. Rep., 16-04.

Hanna, E., J. M. Jones, J. Cappelen, S. H. Mernild, L. Wood, K. Steffen, and P. Huybrechts, 2013. The influence of North Atlantic atmospheric and oceanic forcing effects on 1900-2010 Greenland summer climate and ice melt/runoff. Int. J. Climatol, 33, 862-880, doi: 10.1002/joc.3475.

Jensen, T., J. E. Box, and C. Hvidberg, 2016. A sensitivity study of yearly Greenland ice sheet marine terminating outlet glacier changes: 1999-2013, Journal of Glaciology, 62(231), 72-81.

Mattingly, K., C. Ramseyer, J. Rosen, T. Mote, and R. Muthyala, 2016. Increasing water vapor transport to the Greenland Ice Sheet revealed using self-organizing maps, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/2016GL070424.

McLeod, J. T., and T. L. Mote, 2015. Linking interannual variability in extreme Greenland blocking episodes to the recent increase in summer melting across the Greenland ice sheet. Int. J. Climatol., 36, 1484-1499, doi: 10.1002/joc.4440.

Mote, T., 2007. Greenland surface melt trends 1973-2007: Evidence of a large increase in 2007. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22507.

Nghiem, S. V., D. K. Hall, T. L. Mote, M. Tedesco, M. R. Albert, K. Keegan, C. A. Shuman, N. E. DiGirolamo, and G. Neumann, 2012. The extreme melt across the Greenland ice sheet in 2012, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20502, doi:10.1029/2012GL053611.

Oerlemans, J., 2012. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West-Greenland. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 4, 31-35, doi:10.5194/essd-4-31-2012.

Tedesco, M., X. Fettweis, T. Mote, J. Wahr, P. Alexander, J. Box, and B. Wouters, 2013. Evidence and analysis of 2012 Greenland records from spaceborne observations, a regional climate model and reanalysis data. The Cryosphere, 7, 615-630.

Tedesco, M. et al., 2016. Greenland Ice Sheet [in "State of the Climate in 2015"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (8), S140-S142.

Van As, D., Fausto, R. S., Cappelen, J., Van de Wal, R. S. W., Braithwaite, R. J., Machguth, H., and PROMICE project team, 2016. Placing Greenland ice sheet ablation measurements in a multi-decadal context. Geol. Surv. Denmark Greenland Bull., 35, 71-74.

Van de Wal, R. S. W., W. Greuell, M. R. van den Broeke, C. H. Reijmer, and J. Oerlemans, 2005. Surface mass-balance observations and automatic weather station data along a transect near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Ann. Glaciol., 42, 311-316.

Van de Wal, R. S. W., W. Boot, C. J. P. P. Smeets, H. Snellen, M. R. van den Broeke, and Velicogna, I. and J. Wahr, 2006. Significant acceleration of Greenland ice mass loss in spring, 2004. Nature, 022 Sep 2006; doi:10.1038/nature05168.

Sea Ice

Fetterer, F., K. Knowles, W. Meier, and M. Savoie. 2002, updated daily. Sea Ice Index. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Haas, C., Hendricks S., Eicken H., Herber A.: Synoptic airborne thickness surveys reveal state of Arctic sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters 05/2010; 37(9). doi:10.1029/2010GL042652.

Kwok, R., and D. A. Rothrock, 2009: Decline in Arctic sea ice thickness from submarine and ICESat records: 1958-2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009GL039035.

Kwok, R., and G. F. Cunningham, 2015: Variability of Arctic sea ice thickness and volume from CryoSat-2, Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London A: Math., Phys. Eng. Sci., 373, 2045,

Laxon, S. W., K. A. Giles, A. L. Ridout, D. J. Wingham, R. Willatt, R. Cullen, R. Kwok, A. Schweiger, J. Zhang, C. Haas, S. Hendricks, R. Krishfield, N. Kurtz, S. L. Farrell, M. Davidson, 2013: CryoSat estimates of Arctic sea ice Volume, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50193.

Lindsay, R. and A. Schweiger, 2015. Arctic sea ice thickness loss determined using subsurface, aircraft, and satellite observations. The Cryosphere, 9:269-283.

Maslanik, J., J. Stroeve, C. Fowler, and W. Emery, 2011: Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, doi: 10.1029/2011GL047735.

Meier, W. N., G. Hovelsrud, B. van Oort, J. Key, K. Kovacs, C. Michel, M. Granskog, S. Gerland, D. Perovich, A. P. Makshtas, and J. Reist, 2014. Arctic sea ice in transformation: A review of recent observed changes and impacts on biology and human activity, Rev. Geophys., 41, doi:10.1002/2013RG000431.

NSIDC at Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center,

Tilling, R. L., A. Ridout, A. Shepherd, and D. J. Wingham, 2015; Increased Arctic sea ice volume after anomalously low melting in 2013. Nat. Geosci., 8, 643-646. doi:10.1038/ngeo2489.

Tschudi, M. A., C. Fowler, J. A. Maslanik, and J. A. Stroeve, 2010: Tracking the movement and changing surface characteristics of Arctic sea ice. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Earth Obs. and Rem. Sens., 3, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2010.2048305.

Tschudi, M., C. Fowler, and J. Maslanik, 2015: EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age, Version 2. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center,

Sea Surface Temperature

Reynolds, R. W., N. A. Rayner, T. M. Smith, D. C. Stokes, and W. Wang, 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate, 15, 1609-1625.

Reynolds, R. W., T. M. Smith, C. Liu, D. B. Chelton, K. S. Casey, and M. G. Schlax, 2007: Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J. Climate, 20, 5473-5496, and see

Serreze, M. C., A. D. Crawford, J. Stroeve, A. P. Barrett and R. A. Woodgate, 2016: Variability, trends and predictability of seasonal sea ice retreat and advance in the Chukchi Sea. J. Geophys. Res., accepted for publication.

Stroh, J. N., G. Panteleev, S. Kirillov, M. Makhotin, and N. Shakhova, 2015: Sea-surface temperature and salinity product comparison against external in situ data in the Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 120, 7223-7236, doi:10.1002/2015JC011005.

Timmermans, M. -L. and A. Proshutinsky, 2015: [The Arctic] Sea Surface Temperature [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96 (7), S147-S148.

Timmermans, M. -L. and A. Proshutinsky, 2016: [The Arctic] Sea Surface Temperature [in "State of the Climate in 2015"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97 (8), S137-S138.

Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity

Alexeev, V. A., V. V. Ivanov, R. Kwok, and L. H. Smedsrud, 2013: North Atlantic warming and declining volume of arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere Discuss., 7, 245-265, doi:10.5194/tcd-7-245-2013.

Arrigo, K. R., D. K. Perovich, R. S. Pickart, Z. W. Brown, G. L. van Dijken, K. E. Lowry, M. M. Mills, M. A. Palmer, W. M. Balch, F. Bahr, N. R. Bates, C. Benitez-Nelson, B. Bowler, E. Brownlee, J. K. Ehn, K. E. Frey, R. Garley, S. R. Laney, L. Lubelczyk, J. Mathis, A. Matsuoka, B. G. Mitchell, G. W. K. Moore, E. Ortega-Retuerta, S. Pal, C. M. Polashenski, R. A. Reynolds, B. Scheiber, H. M. Sosik, M. Stephens & J. H. Swift, 2012: Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice. Science 336, 1408, doi:10.1126/science.1215065.

Arrigo, K. R., D. K. Perovich, R. S. Pickart, Z. W. Brown, G. L. van Dijken, K. E. Lowry, M. M. Mills, M. A. Palmer, W. M. Balch, N. R. Bates, C. R. Benitez-Nelson, E. Brownlee, K. E. Frey, S. R. Laney, J. Mathis, A. Matsuoka, B. G. Mitchell, G. W. K. Moore, R. A. Reynolds, H. M. Sosik & J. H. Swift, 2014: Phytoplankton blooms beneath sea ice in the Chukchi Sea. Deep Sea Research II,

Barber, D. G., H. Hop, C. J. Mundy, B. Else, I. A. Dmitrenko, J. -É. Tremblay, J. K. Ehn, P. Assmy, M. Daase, L. M. Candlish, and S. Rysgaard. 2015: Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.09.003.

Behrenfeld, M. J., and P. G. Falkowski, 1997: Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(1), 1-20.

Bélanger, S., M. Babin, and J. É. Tremblay, 2013: Increasing cloudiness in Arctic damps the increase in phytoplankton primary production due to sea ice receding. Biogeosci., 10, 4087-4101, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4087-2013.

Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. Zwally, 1996, updated yearly: Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data. [2003-2014]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Chaves, J., P. J. Werdell, C. W. Proctor, A. R. Neeley, S. A. Freeman, C. S. Thomas, and S. B. Hooker, 2015: Assessment of ocean color data records from MODIS-Aqua in the western Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research II, 118, Part A, 32-43, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2015.02.011.

Comiso, J. C., 2015: Variability and trends of the Global Sea Ice Covers and Sea Levels: Effects on Physicochemical Parameters. Climate and Fresh Water Toxins, Luis M. Botana, M. Carmen Lauzao and Natalia Vilarino, Eds., De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.

Demidov, A. B., S. A. Mosharov, and P. N. Makkaveev, 2014: Patterns of the Kara Sea primary production in autumn: Biotic and abiotic forcing of subsurface layer. J. Marine Systems, 132, 130-149, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.01.014.

Fernandez-Mendez, M., C. Katlein, B. Rabe, M. Nicolaus, I. Peeken, K. Bakker, H. Flores, and A. Boetius, 2015: Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean during the record sea-ice minimum in 2012. Biogeosci., 12, 3525-3549.

Frey, K. E., D. K. Perovich, and B. Light, 2011: The spatial distribution of solar radiation under a melting Arctic sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L22501, doi:10.1029/2011GL049421.

Hoaglin, D. C., F. Mosteller, and J. W. Tukey, 2000: Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis, Wiley Classics Library Edition, (New York: Wiley).

Leu, E., C. J. Mundy, P. Assmy, K. Campbell, T. M. Gabrielsen, M. Gosselin, T. Juul-Pedersen, and R. Gradinger, 2015: Arctic spring awakening - Steering principles behind the phenology of vernal ice algal blooms. Progress in Oceanography,

Maslanik, J., and J. Stroeve, 1999, updated daily: Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations. [2016]. Boulder, Colorado USA: NASA DAAC at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

Müller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, R. Luerssen, C. Hu, and J. J. Walsh, 2005: The importance of continental margins in the global carbon cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L01602, doi:10.1029/2004GL021346.

Tremblay J. -É., L. G. Anderson, P. Matrai, S. Bélanger, C. Michel, P. Coupel, and M. Reigstad, 2015: Global and regional drivers of nutrient supply, primary production and CO2 drawdown in the changing Arctic Ocean. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.08.009.

Tundra Greenness

Abbott, B. W., J. B. Jones, E. A. G. Schuur, F. S. Chapin III, W. B. Bowden, M. S. Bret-Harte, H. E. Epstein, M. D. Flanagan, T. K. Harms, T. N. Hollingsworth, M. C. Mack, A. D. McGuire, S. M. Natali, A.V. Rocha, S. E. Tank, M. R. Turetsky, J. E. Vonk, K. P. Wickland, G. R. Aiken, H. D. Alexander, R. M. W. Amon, B. W. Benscoter, Y. Bergeron, K. Bishop, O. Blarquez, B. Bond-Lamberty, A. L. Breen, I. Buffam, Y. Cai, C. Carcaillet, S. K. Casey, J. M. Chen, H. Y. H. Chen, T. R. Christensen, L. W. Cooper, J. H. C. Cornelissen, W. J. de Groot, T. H. DeLuca, E. Dorrepaal, N. Fletcher, J. C. Finlay, B. C. Forbes, N. H. F. French, S. Gauthier, M. P. Girardin, S. J. Goetz, J. G. Goldhammer, L. Gough, P. Grogan, L. Guo, P. E. Higeura, L. Hinzman, F. S. Hu, G. Hugelius, E. E. Jafarov, R. Jandt, J. F. Johnstone, I. Karlsson, E. S. Kasischke, G. Kattner, R. Kelly, F. Keuper, G. W. Kling, P. Kortelainen, J. Kouki, P. Kuhry, J. Laudon, I. Laurion, R. W. Macdonald, P. J. Mann, P. J. Martikainen, J. W. McClelland, U. Molau, S. F. Oberbauer, D. Olefeldt, D. Paré, M. -A. Parisien, S. Payette, C. Peng, O. S. Pokrovsky, E. B. Rastetter, P. A. Raymond, M. K. Raynolds, G. Rein, J. F. Reynolds, M. Robard, B. M. Rogers, C. Schädel, K. Schaefer, I. K. Schmidt, A. Shvidenko, J. Sky, R. G. M. Spencer, G. Starr, R. G. Striegl, R. Teisserenc, L. J. Tranvik, T. Virtanen, J. M. Welker, and S. Zimov, 2016: Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment. Environm. Res. Lett., 11, 034014.

Barrio, I. C., C. G. Bueno, M. Gartzi, E. M. Soininen, K. S. Christie, J. D. M. Speed, V. T. Ravolainen, B. C. Forbes, G. Gauthier, T. Horstkotte, K. S. Hoset, T. T. Høye, I. S. Jónsdóttir, E. Lévesque, M. A. Mörsdorf, J. Olofsson, P. A. Wookey, and D. S. Hik, 2016: Biotic interactions mediate patterns of herbivore diversity in the Arctic. Glob. Ecol. Biogoegr., doi:10.1111/geb.12470.

Bhatt, U. S., D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, P. A. Bieniek, H. E. Epstein, J. C. Comiso, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, and I. V. Polyakov, 2013: Recent declines in warming and arctic vegetation greening trends over pan-Arctic tundra, Remote Sens. (Special NDVI3g Issue), 5, 4229-4254; doi:10.3390/rs5094229.

Bieniek, P. A., U. S. Bhatt, D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, J. C. Comiso, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, R. L. Thoman, H. Tran, N. Mölders, M. Steele, J. Zhang, and W. Ermold, 2015: Climate drivers linked to changing seasonality of Alaska coastal tundra vegetation productivity. Earth Interactions, 19, 19.

Bjerke, J. W., S. R. Karlsen, K. A. Hogda, E. Malnes, J. U. Jepsen, S. Lovibond, D. Vikhamar-Schuler, and H. Tommervik, 2014: Record-low primary productivity and high plant damage in the Nordic Arctic Region in 2012 caused by multiple weather events and pest outbreaks. Environm. Res. Lett., 9, 084006.

Blok, D., M. Heijmans, G. Schaepman-Strub, A. Kononov, T. Maximov, and F. Berendse, 2010: Shrub expansion may reduce summer permafrost thaw in Siberian tundra. Glob. Change. Biol., 16, 1296-305.

Bokhorst, S., J. W. Bjerke, L. E. Street, T. V. Callaghan, and G. K. Phoenix, 2011: Impacts of multiple extreme winter warming events on sub-Arctic heathland: phenology, reproduction, growth, and CO2 flux responses. Glob. Change. Biol., 17, 2817-2830.

Bret-Harte, M. S., M. C. Mack, G. R. Shaver, D. C. Huebner, M. Johnston, C. A. Mojica, C. Pizano, and J. A. Reskind, 2013: The response of Arctic vegetation and soils following an unusually severe tundra fire. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B-Biol. Sci., 368, doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0490.

Epstein, H. E., M. K. Raynolds, D. A. Walker, U. S. Bhatt, C. J. Tucker, and J. E. Pinzon, 2012: Dynamics of aboveground phytomass of the circumpolar arctic tundra over the past three decades. Environm. Res. Lett. 7, 015506.

Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS), 2013: Available online:

Graglia, E., R. Julkunen-Titto, G. R. Shaver, I. K. Schmidt, S. Jonasson, and A. Michelsen, 2001: Environmental controls and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems. New Phytologist, doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2001.00149.x.

Hupp, J. W., D. H. Ward, M. E. Whalen, and J. M Pearce, 2015: Changing arctic ecosystems - What is causing the rapid increase of Snow Geese in northern Alaska? U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2015-3062,

Loranty, M. M., W. Liberman-Cribbin, L. T. Berner, S. M. Natali, S. J. Goetz, H. D. Alexander, and A. L. Kholodov, 2016: Spatial variation in vegetation productivity trends, fire disturbance, and soil carbon across arctic-boreal permafrost ecosystems. Environm. Res. Lett., 11, 095008.

Myers-Smith, I. H., S. C. Elmendorf, P. S. A. Beck, M. Wilmking, M. Hallinger, D. Blok, K. D. Tape, S. A. Rayback, M. Macias-Fauria, B. C. Forbes, J. D. M. Speed, N. Boulangier-Lapointe, C. Rixen, E. Lévesque, N. Martin Schmidt, C. Baittinger, A. J. Trant, L. Hermanutz, L. Siegwart Collier, M. A. Dawes, T. C. Lantz, S. Weijers, R. Haalfdan Jørgensen, A. Buchwal, A. Buras, A. T. Naito, V. Ravolainen, G. Schaepman-Strub, J. A. Wheeler, S. Wipf, K. C. Guay, D. S. Hik, and M. Vellend, 2015: Climate sensitivity of shrub growth across the tundra biome. Nature Climate Change, doi:10.1038/NCLIMATE2697.

Myers-Smith, I. H., and D. S. Hik, 2013: Shrub canopies influence soil temperatures but not nutrient dynamics: an experimental test of tundra snow-shrub interactions. Ecol. Evol. 3, 3683-700.

Park, T., S. Ganguly, H. Tømmervik, E. S. Euskirchen, K. -A. Høgda, S. R. Karlsen, V. Brovkin, R. R. Nemani, and R. B. Myneni, 2016: Changes in growing season duration and productivity of northern vegetation inferred from long-term remote sensing data. Environm. Res. Lett., 11, 084001.

Parker, T. C., J. -A. Subke, and P. A. Wookey, 2015: Rapid carbon turnover beneath shrub and tree vegetation is associated with low soil carbon stocks at a sub-arctic treeline. Glob. Change Biol., 21, 2070-2081.

Pedersen, Å. Ø., J. D. M. Speed, and I. M. Tombre. 2013: Prevalence of pink-footed goose grubbing in the arctic tundra increases with population expansion. Polar Biol., 36, 1569-1575.

Phoenix, G. K., and J. W. Bjerke, 2016: Arctic browning: extreme events and trends reversing arctic greening. Glob. Change. Biol., doi:10.1111/gcb.13261.

Pinzon, J., and C. Tucker, 2014: A non-stationary 1981-2014 AVHRR NDVI3g time series. Remote Sens., 6, 6929-6960, doi:10.3390/rs6086929.

Raynolds M. K., D. A. Walker, H. E. Epstein, J. E. Pinzon, and C. J. Tucker, 2012: A new estimate of tundra-biome phytomass from trans-Arctic field data and AVHRR NDVI. Remote Sens. Lett., 3, 403-411.

Seddon, A. W. R., M. Macias-Fauria, P. R. Long, D. Benz, and K. J. Willis, 2016: Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability. Nature 531, doi:10.1038/nature16986.

Ocean Acidification

Bates, N. R. 2015. Assessing ocean acidification variability in the Pacific-Arctic region as part of the Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic, Oceanography 28(3):36-45,

Cross, J. N., Mathis, J. T., Pickart, R. S., Bates, N. R., 2016. Formation and transport of corrosive water in the Pacific Arctic region. Deep-Sea Research II, submitted.

Ekstrom, J. A., Suatoni, L., Cooley, S. R., Pendleton, L. H., Waldbusser, G. G., Cinner, J. E., Ritter, J., Langdon, C., van Hooidonk, R., Gledhill, D., Wellman, K., Bech, M. W., Brander, L. M., Rittschof, D., Doherty, C., Edwards, P. E. T., Portela, R., 2016. Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification. Nature Climate Change, 5, 207-214, doi: 10.1038/nclimate2508.

Evans, W., Mathis, J. T., Cross, J. N., Bates, N. R., Frey, K. E., Else, B. G. T., Papakyriakou, T. N., DeGrandpre, M. D., Islam, F., Cai, W. -J., Chen, B., Yamamoto-Kawai, M., Carmack, E., Williams, W. J., Takahashi, T., 2015. Sea-air CO2 exchange in the western Arctic coastal ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 29(8), 1190-1209, doi: 10.1002/2015GB005153.

Frisch, L. C., J. T. Mathis, N. P. Kettle, and S. F. Trainor. 2015. Gauging perceptions of ocean acidification in Alaska. Marine Policy 53:101-110,

Long, W. C., Swiney, K. M., Harris, C., Page, H. N., Foy, R. J., 2013a. Effects of ocean acidification on juvenile Red King crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and Tanner crab (Chinoecetes bairdi) growth, condition, calcification, and survival. PLOS ONE, 8(4), e60959, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060959.

Long, W. C., Swiney, K. M., Foy, R. J., 2013b. Effects of ocean acidification on the embryos and larvae of red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. Mar. Pol. Bull., 69, 38-47, doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.01.011.

Mathis, J. T., Pickart, R. S., Byrne, R. H., McNeil, C. L., Moore, G. W. K., Juranek, L. W., Liu, X., Ma, J., Easley, R. A., Elliot, M. M., Cross, J. N., Reisdorph, S. C., Bahr, F., Morison, J., Lichendorf, T., Feely, R. A., 2013. Storm-induced upwelling of high pCO2 waters onto the continental shelf of the western Arctic Ocean and implications for carbonate mineral saturation states. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L07606, doi: 10.1029/2012GL051574.

Mathis, J. T., Cooley, S. R., Lucey, N., Colt, S., Ekstrom, J., Hurst, T., Hauri, C., Evans, W., Cross, J. N., Feely, R. A., 2015a. Ocean acidification risk assessment for Alaska's fishery sector. Prog. Oceanogr., 136, 71-91, doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.07.001.

Mathis, J. T., Cross, J. N., Doney, S. C., 2015b. Ocean acidification in the surface waters of the Pacific-Arctic boundary regions. Oceanogr., 28(2), 122-135, doi: 1 0.5670/oceanog.2015.36.

Punt, A. E., Poljak, D., Dalton, M. G., Foy, R. J., 2014. Evaluating the impact of ocean acidification on fishery yields and profits: The example of red king crab in Bristol Bay. Ecol. Modell., 2014, 285, 39-53, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.04.017.

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Semiletov, I., Pipko, I., Gustafsson, Ö., Anderson, L. G., Sergienko, V., Pugach, S., Dudarev, O., Charkin, A., Gukov, A., Bröder, L., Andersson, A., Spivak, E., Shakhova, N., 2016. Acidification of East Siberian Arctic Shelf waters through addition of freshwater and terrestrial carbon. Nature Geosci., 9, 361-365, doi: 10.1038/ngeo2695.

Qi, D., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Zhong, W., Feely, R. A., et al., 2016. Expansion of acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean, Nature Climate Change, Accepted.

Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F. McLaughlin, and E. Carmack. 2013. Ocean acidification in the three oceans surrounding northern North America. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 118:6274-6284, doi:10.1002/2013JC009157.

Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

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McGuire, A. D., T. R. Christensen, D. Hayes, A. Heroult, E. Euskirchen, J. S. Kimball, C. Koven, P. Lafleur, P. A. Miller, W. Oechel, P.Peylin, M. Williams and Y. Yi (2012) An assessment of the carbon balance of Arctic tundra: comparisons among observations, process models, and atmospheric inversions, Biogeosciences, 9, 3185-3204, doi:10.5194/bg-9-3185-2012.

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Schuur, E. A. G. et al. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change. Climatic Change 119, 359-374, doi:10.1007/s10584-013-0730-7 (2013).

Schuur, E. A. G. et al. Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback. Nature 520, 171-179, doi:10.1038/nature14338 (2015).

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Sturm, M. C. Racine, K. Tape. Climate change: increased shrub abundance in the Arctic. Nature 411, 546-547 (31 May 2001) | doi:10.1038/35079180.

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Zimov, S. A. et al. Permafrost carbon: Stock and decomposability of a globally significant carbon pool. Geophysical Research Letters 33 (2006).

Shrews and Their Parasites: Small Species Indicate Big Changes

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Araujo, S. B. L., M. P. Braga, D. R. Brooks, S. Agosta, E. P. Hoberg, F. von Hathental, W. A. Boeger, 2015: Understanding host-switching by ecological fitting. PLoS ONE, 10, e0139225.

Binkienė, R., V. Kontrimavichus, and E. Hoberg. 2011: Overview of the cestode fauna of European shrews of the genus Sorex with comments on the fauna in Neomys and Crocidura and an exploration of historical processes in post-glacial Europe. Helminthologia, 48, 207-228.

Bordes, F., and S. Morand, 2015: Impacts of parasite diversity on wild vertebrates: limited knowledge but important perspectives, Ch. 5. In: (Eds. S. Morand, B. R. Krasnov, and D. T. L. Littlewood) Parasite Diversity and Diversification: Evolutionary Ecology Meets Phylogenetics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

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Cook, J., C. Brochman, S. L. Talbot, V. Fedorov, E. Taylor, R. Väinölä, E. P. Hoberg, M. Kholodova, M. Magnusun, 2013: Genetics, pp. 514-539 In: (Ed. H. Meltofte) Arctic Biodiversity Assessment- Status and Trends in Arctic Biodiversity. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Arctic Council, Akureyi, Iceland.

Cook, J. A., B. S. McLean, D. J. Jackson, J. P. Colella, S. E. Greiman, V. V. Tkach, T. S. Jung, and J. L. Dunnum, 2016: First record of the Holarctic least shrew (Sorex minutissimus) and associated helminths from Canada: new light on northern Pleistocene refugia. Can. J. Zool., 94, 367-372.

Dobson, A., P. K. Molnár, and S. Kutz, 2015: Climate change and Arctic parasites. Trend. Parasitol., 31, 181-188.

Dudley, J. P., E. P. Hoberg, E. J. Jenkins, A. J. Parkinson, 2015: Climate change in the North American Arctic: A One Health perspective. EcoHealth, 12, 713-725.

Greiman, S. E., V. V. Tkach, and J. A. Cook, 2013: Description and molecular differentiation of a new Staphylocystoides (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) from the dusky shrew Sorex monticolus in Southeast Alaska. J. Parasitol. 99, 1045-1049.

Haukisalmi, V., L. M. Hardman, P. Foronda, C. Feliu, J. Laakkonen, J. Niemimaa, J. T. Lehtonen, and H. Henttonen, 2010: Systematic relationships of hymenolepidid cestodes of rodents and shrews inferred from sequences of 28S ribosomal RNA. Zoologica Scripta, 39, 631-641.

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Hoberg, E. P., and D. R. Brooks, 2013: Episodic processes, invasion, and faunal mosaics in evolutionary and ecological time, pp. 199-213 In: (Ed. K. Rohde) The Balance of Nature and Human Impact. Cambridge University Press.

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Karpenko, C. V., and N. E. Dokuchaev, 2012. The first record of the trematode Maritrema afanassjewi Belopolskaja, 1952 in shrews. Vestnik Dalnevostochnogo Otdeleniya Rossiyskoj Akademii Nauk, 163, 103-106. (in Russian)

Kelly, B., D. A. Tallmon, and A. Whiteley, 2010: The Arctic melting pot. Nature, 468, 891.

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Kutz, S., E. P. Hoberg, P. K. Molnár, A. Dobson, and G. Verocai, 2014: A walk on the tundra: Host-parasite interactions in an extreme environment. Internat. J. Parasitol.- Parasites Wildlife, 3, 198-208.

MacDonald, S. O. and J. A. Cook, 2009: Recent Mammals of Alaska. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks. 387pp.

McLean, B. S., K. C. Bell, J. L. Dunnum, B. Abrahamson, J. P. Colella, E. R. Deardorff, J. A. Weber, A. K. Jones, F. Salazar-Miralles, and J. A. Cook, 2015: Natural history collections-based research: progress, promise, and best practices. J. Mamm., p. 178.

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Pauls, S. U., C. Nowak, M. Bálint, and M. Pfenninger, 2013: The impact of global climate change on genetic diversity within populations and species. Mol. Ecol., 22, 925-946.

Serreze, M. C. and R. G. Barry, 2011. Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis. Glob. Planet. Change, 77, 85-96.

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Waltari, E., E. P. Hoberg, E. P. Lessa, and J. A. Cook, 2007: Eastward Ho: phylogeographical perspectives on colonization of hosts and parasites across the Beringian nexus. J. Biogeog., 34, 561-574.

Weslawski J. M., J. Wiktor Jr., and L. Kotwicki, 2010: Increase in biodiversity in the arctic rocky littoral, Sorkappland, Svalbard, after 20 years of climate warming. Marine Biodiv., 40, 123-130.

Arctic Change - So What?: Linkages and Impacts

ARCUS, 2007: The Arctic Synthesis Collaboratory: An Integrated Community-based Research Network. Arctic Collaboratory Planning Committee & ARCSS Committee, eTown Meeting, 5 Dec 2007,

ARCUS, 2014: Reports and Science Plans, Study of Environmental Arctic Change. Available at

ACIA, 2005: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY 1042 pp.

AMAP, 2012: Arctic Climate Issues 2011: Changes in Arctic Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost. SWIPA 2011 Overview Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). Oslo, xi, 97 pp.

Balton, D. A. 2014: Statement of Ambassador David A. Balton, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries, Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Before the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation. U.S. House of Representatives 23 Jul 2014.

Bhatt, U. S., D. A. Walker, M. K. Raynolds, J. C. Comiso, H. E. Epstein, G. J. Jia, R. Gens, J. E. Pinzon, C. J. Tucker, C. E. Tweedie, and P. J. Webber, 2010: Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change is linked to sea-ice decline. Earth Interactions. 14, 1-20, doi:10.1175/2010EI315.1.

Bos, N., A. Zimmerman, J. Olson, J. Yew, J. Yerkie, E. Dahl, and G. Olson, 2007: Shared Databases to Communities of Practice: A Taxonomy of Collaboratories. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 652-672.

Cohen, J., J. A. Screen, J. C. Furtado, M. Barlow, D. Whittleston, D. Coumou, J. Francis, K. Dethloff, D. Entekhabi, J. Overland, and J. Jones, 2014: Recent Arctic amplification and extreme mid-latitude weather. Nature Geoscience, 7, 627-637.

Duffy, P. A., J. E. Walsh, J. M. Graham, D. H. Mann, and T. S. Rupp, 2005: Impacts of large-scale atmospheric-ocean variability on Alaskan fire season severity. Ecological Applications. 15, 1317-1330.

Eby, M., A. J. Weaver, K. Alexander, K. Zickfeld, et al., 2013: Historical and idealized climate model experiments: An intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity. Climate of the Past, 9 (3), 1111-1140, doi: 10.5194/cp-9-1111-2013.

Epstein et al., 2015: Tundra Greenness. Arctic Report Card,

Forbes, D. L. (editor). 2011: State of the Arctic Coast 2010 - Scientific Review and Outlook. International Arctic Science Committee, Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, International Permafrost Association. Helmholtz-Zentrum, Geesthacht, Germany, 178 p.

Francis, J. A., D. M. White, J. J. Cassano, W. J. Gutowski Jr., L. D. Hinzman, M. M. Holland, M. A. Steele, and C. J. Vörösmarty, 2009a: An arctic hydrologic system in transition: Feedbacks and impacts on terrestrial, marine, and human life. J Geophys. Res., 114, G04019, doi:10.1029/2008JG000902.

Francis, J. A., W. Chan, D. Leathers, J. R. Miller, and D. E. Veron, 2009b: Winter Northern Hemisphere weather patterns remember summer Arctic sea ice extent. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07503, doi:10.1029/2009GL037274.

Frey et al., 2015: Arctic Ocean Primary Productivity. Arctic Report Card.

GAO. 2009: Relocation of Alaska Native Villages: Limited Progress Has Been Made on Relocating Villages Threatened by Flooding and Erosion. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-551, Government Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

Hinzman, L. D., C. J. Deal, A. D. McGuire, S. H. Mernild, I. V. Polyakov, and J. E. Walsh, 2013: Trajectory of the Arctic as an Integrated System. Ecological Applications, 23, 1837-1868.

IAWG, 2009: Alaska's IAWG 2009 Final Report: Recommendations to the Governor's Sub-Cabinet on Climate Change, 162p,

IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T. F. Stocker et al., Eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

Jeffries, M. O., J. E. Overland, and D. K. Perovich, 2013: The Arctic shifts to a new normal. Phys. Today, 66(10), 35 (2013); doi: 10.1063/PT.3.2147,

Joly, K. and D. R. Klein, 2016: Complexity of Caribou Population Dynamics in a Changing Climate. U.S. National Park Service.

Kedra, M., C. Moritz, E. S. Choy, C. David, R. Degen, S. Duerksen, I. Ellingsen, B. Gorska, J.M. Grebmeier, D. Kirievskaya, D. van Oevelen, K. Piwosz, A. Samuelsen, J.M. Wesławski, 2015: Status and trends in the structure of Arctic benthic food webs. Polar Research, 34, 23775,

Kwok, R. and N. Untersteiner, 2011: The thinning of Arctic sea ice, Phys. Today, 64(4), 36-41.

Liljedahl, A.K., J. Boike, R. P. Daanen, A. N. Fedorov, G. V. Frost, G. Grosse, L. D. Hinzman, Y. Iijma, J. C. Jorgenson, N. Matveyeva, M. Necsoiu, M. K. Raynolds, V. E. Romanovsky, J. Schulla, K. D. Tape, D. A. Walker, C. J. Wilson, H. Yabuki, D. Zona., 2016: Pan-Arctic ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost and its influence on tundra hydrology. Nature Geoscience, 9,312-318, doi:10.1038/ngeo2674.

Murray, M. S., L. Anderson, G. Cherkashov, C. Cuyler, B. Forbes, J. C. Gascard, C. Haas, P. Schlosser, G. Shaver, K. Shimada, M. Tjernström, J. Walsh, J. Wandell, and Z. Zhao, 2010: International Study of Arctic Change: Science Plan. ISAC International Program Office, Stockholm. 58 pp.

National Research Council, 2013: Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises. Polar Research Board, Committee on Understanding and Monitoring Abrupt Climate Change and its Impacts, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, J. W. C. White, R. B. Alley, D. Archer, A. D. Barnosky, J. Foley, R. Fu, M. Holland, S. Lozier, J. Schmitt, L. C. Smith, G. Sugihara, D. Thompson, and A. Weaver. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 208 pp.

National Research Council, 2014: The Arctic in the Anthropocene: Emerging Research Questions. Polar Research Board, Committee on Emerging Research Questions in the Arctic. H. Huntington, S. Pfirman, C. Ashjian, L. Bourgeau-Chavez, J. A. Francis, S. Haakanson, R. Hawley, T. Hepa, D. Hik, L. Hinzman, A. Lynch, A. M. Macrander, G. Miller, K. Moran, E. Mosley-Thompson, S. Mukasa, and T. Weingartner. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 220 pp.

Overpeck, J. T., M. Sturm, J. A. Francis, D. K. J. Perovich, M. C. Serreze, R. Benner, E. C. Carmack, F. S. Chapin III, S. C. Gerlach, L. C. Hamilton, M. Holland, H. P. Huntington, J. R. Key, A. H. Lloyd, G. M. MacDonald, J. A. McFadden, D. Noone, T. D. Prowse, P. Schlosser, and C. Vörösmarty, 2005: Arctic system on trajectory to new, seasonally ice-free state. Eos Transactions, 86 (34), 309.

President George W. Bush, 2009: US Arctic Policy. National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD-66, Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-25.

President Barack Obama, 2014: Implementation Plan for The National Strategy for the Arctic Region.

President Barack Obama, 2015: Executive Order - Enhancing Coordination of National Efforts in the Arctic.

Rawlins, M. et al., 2009: Tracing freshwater anomalies through the air-land-ocean system: A case study from the Mackenzie River basin and the Beaufort Gyre. Atmos.-Ocean, 47, 79-97.

Raynolds, M. K., D. A. Walker, K. J. Ambrosius, J. Brown, K. R. Everett, M. Kanevskiy, G. P. Kofinas, V. E. Romanovsky, Y. Shur, and P. J. Webber, 2014: Cumulative geoecological effects of 62 years of infrastructure and climate change in ice-rich permafrost landscapes, Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska. Global Change Biology, 20,1211-1224. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12500.

Richter-Menge, J. and J. Mathis, Eds., 2016: The Arctic [in "State of the Climate in 2015"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97(8), S131-S154.

Roberts, A., L. D. Hinzman, J. E. Walsh, M. Holland, J. Cassano, R. Döscher, H. Mitsudera, and A. Sumi, 2010: A Science Plan for Regional Arctic System Modeling: A report by the Arctic Research Community for the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs. International Arctic Research Center Technical Paper 10-0001. International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 47 pp.

Russell, D. and A. Gunn, 2012: Caribou and Reindeer (Rangifer). Arctic Report Card: Update for 2012.

Swanberg, N. and R. M. Holmes, 2013: Is it ARCSS? Witness the Arctic, 17(3), 4-6.

Tedesco, M. et al., 2015: Greenland Ice Sheet. Arctic Report Card,

Faster Glaciers and the Search for Faster Science

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