The International Polar Years
An International Polar Year or IPY is a year or so during which many nations coordinate their Polar expeditions, observations and analyses.
Click image for more information and credits
The First IPY was from 1881 to 1884.
The Fourth IPY was from 2007-2008.
The First IPY, from 1881 to 1884, involved 11 nations and was the first coordinated international polar research activity ever undertaken, inspiring subsequent international research programs. There was a Second IPY in 1932-1933 involving 40 nations, and a Third IPY in 1957-1958 (67 nations) that was also called the International Geophysical Year or IGY because it included research outside the Polar areas. Planning for the Fourth IPY, 2007-2008, started in 2004.
IPY measurements can be taken for more than a year. Although international coordination is maximized during the IPY, additional field expeditions or observations may be mounted by various nations in the year or two preceding or following the IPY. Therefore, the IPY may in fact encompass several years. The polar years’ emphasize the importance of the Polar Regions to global climate and of cooperative international research.
Read about NOAA Activities in IPY March 2007-March 2009
- International IPY website
- U.S. IPY website - from the National Academy of Sciences
- U.S. IPY website - from the National Science Foundation
- IPY History
- IPY-1 1881-1884
- IPY-2 1932-1933
- IPY-3 /IGY 1957-1958
- non-polar "Years" (NASA) eGY.org
- NOAA Library IPY and Polar Research resources and references (PDF) or Word document
First IPY (1881-1884)
- First IPY - Images and on-line data from 1881-1884
- The First International Polar Year (1982-83): A big science experience with small science equipment - from the International Commission on History of Meteorology
Second IPY (1932-1933)
- IPY-2 1932-1933 University of Saskatchewan
- Ionosondes UK Solar system Data Center
- University of Alaska (Chapman)
Third IPY or IGY (1957-1958)
- IGY memorabilia - Dave Meier
- IGY Documents and News Reports from the Eisenhower Archives
- About IGY from NOAA ESRL GMD
- IGY from NASA history archive
- IGY from Columbia Encyclopaedia via infoplease.com
- IGY 50th anniversity page from Penn State
- ionospheric measurements
- IGY from the National Academies
- fascinating 69 page doc (PDF) on IGY from National Defense University (Joint Chiefs of Staff)
- from the Glasgow digital library
- USGS IPY
- AGU Cryosphere session on IPY
- US Ice Core Working Group perspective on IPY from University of New Hampshire
- IGY at the South Pole - from www.southpolestation.com