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November 23, 2011

Temperature and Clouds

Döscher, R., K. Wyser, M. Meier, R. Qian, and G. Redler. 2009. Quantifying Arctic contributions to climate predictability in a regional coupled ocean-ice-atmosphere model. Climate Dynamics 34:1,157-1,176.

Gascard, J.-C., J. Festy, H. le Goff, M. Weber, B. Bruemmer, M. Offermann, M. Doble, P. Wadhams, R. Forsberg, S. Hanson, and others. 2008. Exploring Arctic transpolar drift during dramatic sea ice retreat. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 89:21-22.

Graversen, R.G., and M. Wang. 2009. Polar amplification in a coupled climate model with locked albedo. Climate Dynamics 33:629-643.

Langen, P.L., and V.A. Alexeev. 2007. Polar amplification as a preferred response in an idealized aquaplanet GCM. Climate Dynamics 29:305-317.

Liu, Y., J. Key, and X. Wang, 2009. Influence of changes in sea ice concentration and cloud cover on recent Arctic surface temperature trends, Geophys. Research Lett., 36, L20710, doi:10.1029/2009GL040708.

Liu, Y., J. Key, J. Francis, and X. Wang, 2007. Possible causes of decreasing cloud cover in the Arctic winter, 1982-2000, Geophys. Res. Letters, 34, L14705, doi:10.1029/2007GL030042.

Manabe S., and R.J. Stouffer. 1980. Sensitivity of a global climate model to an increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research 85:5,529-5,554.

Przybylak, R. 2002. Variability of Air Temperature and Atmospheric Precipitation in the Arctic. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 330 pp.

Quadrelli, R., and J.M. Wallace. 2004. A simplified linear framework for interpreting patterns of Northern Hemisphere wintertime climate variability. Journal of Climate 17:3,728-3,744.

Screen, J.A., and I. Simmonds. 2010. Increasing fall-winter energy loss from the Arctic Ocean and its role in Arctic temperature amplification. Geophysical Research Letters 37, L16707, doi:10.1029/2010GL044136.

Serreze, M.C., A.P. Barrett, J.C. Stroeve, D.N. Kindig, and M.M. Holland. 2008. The emergence of surface-based Arctic amplification. The Cryosphere Discussions 2:601-622.

Shupe, M. D., and J. M. Intrieri, 2004. Cloud radiative forcing of the Arctic surface: The influence of cloud properties, surface albedo, and solar zenith angle. J. Climate, 17, 616-628.

Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA). 2011. AMAP, Oslo, Norway.

Wang, X. and J. Key, 2005. Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties based on the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder data set. Part II: Recent trends, J. Climate, 18(14), 2575-2593.

Wang, X. and J. Key, 2003. Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space, Science, 299(5613), 1725-1728.

Wood, K.R., and J.E. Overland. 2010. Early 20th century Arctic warming in retrospect. International Journal of Climatology doi:10.1002/joc.1973.

Carbon Dioxide and Methane

Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans (2003), Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1992, doi:10.1029/2003GL018126.

Forster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D.W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D.C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz and R. Van Dorland, 2007: Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

McGuire, D. A., L. G. Anderson, T. R. Christensen, S. Dallimore, L. Guo, D. J. Hayes, M. Heimann, T. D. Lorenson, R. W. Macdonald, and N. Roulet (2009), Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change, Ecol. Monogr., 79(4), 523-555.

Tans, P. (2009), An Accounting of the Observed Increase in Oceanic and Atmospheric CO2 and an Outlook for the Future, Oceanography, 26-35.

Tarnocai, C., J. G. Canadell, E. A. G. Schuur, P. Kuhry, G. Mazhitova, and S. Zimov (2009), Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB2023, doi:10.1029/2008GB003327.

Ozone and UV Radiation

Bernhard, G., C. R. Booth, and J. C. Ehramjian (2008): Comparison of UV irradiance measurements at Summit, Greenland; Barrow, Alaska; and South Pole, Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 4799-4810. Available at:

Butchart, N. and E. E. Remsberg (1986): The area of the stratospheric polar vortex as a diagnostic for tracer transport on an isentropic surface, J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 1319-1339.

Douglas, A., and V. Fioletov (Coordinating Lead Authors), S. Godin-Beekmann, R. Müller, R.S. Stolarski, A. Webb, A. Arola, J.B. Burkholder, J.P. Burrows, M.P. Chipperfield, R. Cordero, C. David, P.N. den Outer, S.B. Diaz, L.E. Flynn, M. Hegglin, J.R. Herman, P. Huck, S. Janjai, I.M. Jánosi, J.W. Krzyścin, Y. Liu, J. Logan, K. Matthes, R.L. McKenzie, N.J. Muthama, I. Petropavlovskikh, M. Pitts, S. Ramachandran, M. Rex, R.J. Salawitch, B.-M. Sinnhuber, J. Staehelin, S. Strahan, K. Tourpali, J. Valverde-Canossa, C. Vigouroux (2011): Stratospheric changes and climate, Chapter 4 in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project-Report No. 52, 516 pp., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Available at:

Manney, G. L., M. L. Santee, M. Rex., N. J. Livesey, M. C. Pitts, P. Veefkind, E. R. Nash, I. Wohltmann, R. Lehmann, L. Froidevaux, L. R. Poole, M. R. Schoeberl, D. P. Haffner, J. Davies, V. Dorokhov, H. Gernandt, B. Johnson, R. Kivi, E. Kyrö, N. Larsen, P. F. Levelt, A. Makshtas, C. T. McElroy, H. Nakajima, M. C. Parrondo, D. W. Tarasick, P. von der Gathen, K. A. Walker, and N. S. Zinoviev (2011): Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011 echoed the Antarctic ozone hole, Nature, 478, 469-475. Available at:

McKinlay, A. F., and B. L. Diffey (1987): A reference action spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, CIE Res. Note, 6(1), 17- 22.

Müller, R., J.-U. Grooß, C. Lemmen, D. Heinze, M. Dameris, and G. Bodeker (2008): Simple measures of ozone depletion in the polar stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 251-264. Available at:

Rex, M., R. J. Salawitch, P. von der Gathen, N. R. P. Harris, M. P. Chipperfield, and B. Naujokat (2004):Arctic ozone loss and climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L04116, doi:10.1029/2003GL018844.

Schiermeier, Q. (2011): Arctic ozone hole causes concern - April 05, 2011,

Weatherhead B., A. Tanskanen, and A. Stevermer (2005): Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation, Chapter 5 in: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, 1042 pp, Cambridge University Press, New York. Available at:

WHO (2002): Global Solar UV Index: A Practical Guide, 28 pp., published by World Health Organization (WHO), World Meteorological Organization (WMO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN 9241590076. Available at:

Sea Ice

International Ice Charting Working Group (IICWG). 2011. News Release: International Ice Services Caution that "Open" Does Not Mean Ice-free.

Maslanik J. A., C. Fowler, J. Stroeve, S. Drobot, J. Zwally, D. Yi, W. Emery, A younger, thinner Arctic ice cover: Increased potential for rapid, extensive sea-ice loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24501, doi:10.1029/2007GL032043, 2007.

Maslanik, J., J. Stroeve, C. Fowler, and W. Emery. 2011. Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L13502, doi:10.1029/2011GL047735.

National Snow and Ice Data Center, Web Site,

Stroeve, J. C., J. Maslanik, M. C. Serreze, I. Rigor, W. Meier, and C. Fowler. 2011. Sea ice response to an extreme negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation during winter 2009/2010. Geophysical Research Letter 38, L02502, doi:10.1029/2010GL045662.


Aagaard, K., and E. C. Carmack (1989), The role of sea ice and other freshwater in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14,485- 14,498.

Jackson, J. M., E. C. Carmack, F. A. McLaughlin, S. E. Allen, and R. G. Ingram, 2010: Identification, characterization, and change of the near-surface temperature maximum in the Canada Basin, 1993-2008, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C05021, doi:10.1029/2009JC005265.

McPhee M. G., A. Proshutinsky, J. H. Morison, M. Steele, M. B. Alkire, 2009: Rapid change in freshwater content of the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L10602, doi:10.1029/2009GL037525.

Proshutinsky, A.Y. and M.A. Johnson. 1997: Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 102(C9 June 15): 12493-12514.

Proshutinsky A., and M. Johnson, 2011: Arctic Ocean Oscillation Index (AOO): interannual and decadal changes of the Arctic climate, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13, EGU2011-7850, 2011, EGU General Assembly 2011.

Proshutinsky, A., I. M. Ashik, E. N. Dvorkin, S. Hakkinen, R. A. Krishfield, and W. R. Peltier, 2004: Secular sea level change in the Russian sector of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C03042, doi:10.1029/2003JC002007.

Proshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, W. J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, M. Itoh, and K. Shimada, 2009: Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2008JC005104.

Rabe, B., M. Karcher, U. Schauer, J. Toole, R. Krishfield, S. Pisarev, F. Kauker, R. Gerdes and T. Kikuchi, 2011: An assessment of Arctic Ocean freshwater content changes from the 1990s to 2006-2008", Deep-Sea Res. I, 58, p. 173-185, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.002.

Reynolds, R. W., et al., 2002: An improved in situ and satellite SST analysis for climate, J. Clim., 15, 1609-1625.

Steele, M., J. Zhang, and W. Ermold, 2010: Mechanisms of summertime upper Arctic Ocean warming and the effect on sea ice melt, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C11004, doi:10.1029/2009JC005849.

Steele, M., W. S. Ermold, and J. Zhang, 2011: Modeling the formation and fate of the near-surface temperature maximum in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2010JC006803, in press.

Steele, M., J. Morison, W. Ermold, I. Rigor, M. Ortmeyer, and K. Shimada, 2004: Circulation of summer Pacific halocline water in the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C02027, doi:10.1029/2003JC002009.

Timmermans, M-L., A. Proshutinsky, R. Krishfield, D. Perovich, J. Richter-Menge and J. Toole 2011: Surface freshening in the Arctic Ocean's Eurasian Basin: an apparent consequence of recent change in the wind-driven circulation, Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13, EGU2011-1455, 2011, EGU General Assembly 2011.

Timokhov, L., and F. Tanis, Eds., 1997: Environmental Working Group Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean-Winter Period. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan in association with the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Arctic Climatology Project, CD-ROM.

Timokhov, L., and F. Tanis, Eds., 1998: Environmental Working Group Joint U.S.-Russian Atlas of the Arctic Ocean-Summer Period. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan in association with the National Snow and Ice Data Center, Arctic Climatology Project, CD-ROM.

Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(9), 1297-1300.

Toole, J. M., M.-L. Timmermans, D. K. Perovich, R. A. Krishfield, A. Proshutinsky, and J. A. Richter-Menge (2010), Influences of the ocean surface mixed layer and thermohaline stratification on Arctic Sea ice in the central Canada Basin , J. Geophys. Res. , 115 , C10018, doi:10.1029/2009JC005660.

Tremblay, J.-E., Y. Gratton, E. C. Carmack, C. D. Payne, and N. M. Price, 2002: Impact of the large-scale Arctic circulation and the North Water Polynya on nutrient inventories in Baffin Bay, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3112, doi:10.1029/2000JC00595.

Wijffels, S. E., R. W. Schmitt, H. L. Bryden, and A. Stigebrandt, 1992: Transport of freshwater by the oceans, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 22, 155- 162.

Yang, J., 2009: Seasonal and interannual variability of downwelling in the Beaufort Sea, J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , C00A14, doi:10.1029/2008JC005084.

Ocean Acidification

Aguilar-Islas, A.M., Hurst, M.P., Buck, K.N., Sohst, B., Smith, G.J., Lohan, M.C., and Bruland, K.W., 2007. Micro- and macronutrients in the southeastern Bering Sea: Insight into iron-replete and iron-depleted regimes. Progress in Oceanography, 73, 99-126.

Azetsu-Scott, K., Clarke, A., Falkner, K., Hamilton, J., Jones, E.P., Lee, C., Petrie, B., Prinsenberg, S., Starr, M., and, Yeats, P., 2010. Calcium carbonate saturation states in the waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Labrador Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 115, C11021, doi:10.1029/2009JC005917.

Bates, N.R., and Mathis, J.T., (2009). The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks. Biogeosciences, 6, 2433-2459.

Bates, N.R., Mathis, J.T., Jefferies, M.A., (2010). Air-Sea CO2 fluxes on the Bering Sea Shelf. (Biogeosciences Discuss., 7, 1-44, 2010).

Buddemeier, R.W., Keypas, J.A., and Aronson, R.B., 2004. Coral reefs and global climate change: Potential contributions of climate change to stresses on coral reef ecosystems, report, 44 pp., Pew Center on Climate Change, Arlington, Va. (Available at

Byrne, R.H., Mecking, S., Feely, R.A., and Liu, Z., 2010. Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 37, L02601, doi:10.1029/2009GL040999.

Caldiera, K. and Wickett, M.E., 2003. Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature, 425(6956), 365.

Caldiera, K., and Wickett, M.E., 2005. Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 110(C9), C09S04.

Chierici, M., and Fransson, A., 2009. Calcium carbonate saturation in the surface water of the Arctic Ocean: undersaturation in freshwater influenced shelves. Biogeosciences, 6, 2421-2432,

Cooley, S.R., and Doney, S.C., 2009. Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters, 4, 024007, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/4/2/024007.

Cooley, S.R., Kite-Powell, H.L., and Doney, S.C., 2009. Ocean Acidification's potential to alter global marine ecosystem services. Oceanography, 22(4), 172-181.

Fabry, V.J., Seibel, B.A., Feely, R A., and Orr, J.C., 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65, 414-432.

Fabry, V.J., McClintock, J.B., Mathis, J.T., and Grebmeier, J.M., 2009. Ocean Acidification at high latitudes: the Bellwether. Oceanography, 22(4), 160-171.

Feely, R.A., Doney, S.C., and Cooley S.R., 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4), 36-47.

Feely, R.A., Sabine, C.L., Lee, K., Berelson, W., Keypas, J., Fabry, V J., and Millero, F. J., 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science, 305(5682), 362-266.

Jutterström, S., and Anderson, L.G., 2005. The saturation of calcite and aragonite in the Arctic Ocean. Marine Chemistry, 94, 101-110.

Mathis, J.T., Cross, J.N., Bates, N.R., (2011) Coupling Primary Production and Terrestrial Runoff to Ocean Acidification and Carbonate Mineral Suppression in the Eastern Bering Sea J. Geophys. Res., 116, C02030, doi:10.1029/2010JC006453, 2011.

Mathis, J.T., Cross, J.N., Bates, N.R., Lomas, M.L., Moran, S.B., Mordy, C.W., Stabeno, P., (2010). Seasonal Distribution of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon and Net Community Production on the Bering Sea Shelf (Biogeosciences, 7, 1769-1787, doi:10.5194/bg-7-1769-2010).

Orr, J.C., Fabry, V.J., Aumont, O., Bopp, L., Doney, S.C., Feely, R.A., Gnanadesikan, A., Gruber, N., Ishida, A., Joos, F., Key, R.M., Lindsay, K., Maier-Reimer, E., Matear, R., Monfray, P., Mouchet, A., Najjar, R.G., Plattner, G.K., Rodgers, K. B., Sabine, C.L., Sarmiento, J.L., Schlitzer, R., Slater, R.D., Totterdell, I J., Weirig, M.F., Yamanaka, Y., and Yool, A., 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437(7059), 681-686.

Sabine, C.L., Feely, R.A., Gruber, N., Key, R. M., Lee, K., Bullister, J.L., Wanninkhof, R., Wong, C.S., Wallace, D.W.R., Tilbrook, B., Millero, F. J., Peng, T.-H., Kozyr, A., Ono, T., and Rios, A.F., 2004. The Oceanic Sink for Anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305(5682), 367-371.

Sabine, C.L. and Feely, R A., 2007. The oceanic sink for carbon dioxide. In D. Reay, N. Hewitt, J. Grace and K. Smith, Eds. Greenhouse Gas Sinks. pp. 31-49. CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK.

Sambrotto, R.N., Mordy, C., Zeeman, S.I., Stabeno, P.J., and Macklin, S.A., 2008. Physical forcing and nutrient conditions associated with patterns of Chl a and phytoplankton productivity in the southeastern Bering Sea during summer. Deep Sea Research, II, 55, 1745-1760.

Stabeno, P. J., Schumacher, J.D., and Ohtani, K., 1999. The physical oceanography of the Bering Sea. In: T.R. Loughlin and K. Ohtani, Eds. Dynamics of the Bering Sea: A Summary of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characteristics, and a Synopsis of Research on the Bering Sea. AK-SG-99-03, 1-28. North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), University of Alaska Sea Grant, Fairbanks, AK.

Steinacher, M., Joos, F., Frolicher, T. L., Platter, G.-K., and Doney, S.C., 2009. Imminent ocean acidification of the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon-cycle climate model. Biogeosciences, 6, 515-533.

Yamamoto-Kawai, M., McLaughlin, F.A., Carmack, E.C., Nishino, S., Shimada, K., (2009). Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt. Science, Vol. 326. no. 5956, pp. 1098-1100.

Ocean Biogeophysics

Cai, W.-J., et al., 2010, Decrease in the CO2 uptake capacity in an ice-free Arctic Ocean Basin, Science, 329, 556-559, doi:10.1126/science.1189338.

Carmack, E. C. and D. C. Chapman, 2003, Wind-driven shelf/basin exchange on an Arctic shelf: The joint roles of ice cover extent and shelf-break bathymetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1778 doi:10.10.1029/2003GL017526.

Li W.K., F.A. McLaughlin, C. Lovejoy, E.C. Carmack, 2009: Smallest Algae Thrive As the Arctic Ocean Freshens, Science, Vol. 326. no. 5952, p. 539 doi:10.1126/science.1179798.

McLaughlin, F. A. and E. C. Carmack, 2010: Deepening of the nutricline and chlorophyll maximum in the Canada Basin interior, 2003-2009, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L24602, doi:10.1029/2010GL045459.

Nishino, S., M. Itoh, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Kikuchi, and M. Aoyama, 2011a; Impact of an unusually largewarm-core eddy on distributions of nutrients and phytoplankton in the southwestern Canada Basin during late summer/early fall 2010, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L16602, doi:10.1029/2011GL047885.

Nishino, S., T. Kikuchi, M. Yamamoto-Kawai, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Hirawake, and M. Itoh, 2011b; Enhancement/reduction of biological pump depends on ocean circulation in the sea-ice reduction regions of the Arctic Ocean, J. Oceanogr., 67, 305-314, doi:10.1007/s10872-011-0030-7.

Proshutinsky, A., R. Krishfield, M.-L. Timmermans, J. Toole, E. Carmack, F. McLaughlin, W. J. Williams, S. Zimmermann, M. Itoh, and K. Shimada, 2009: Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from observations J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2008JC005104.

Tremblay, J.-É., S. Bélanger, D. G. Barber, M. Asplin, J. Martin, G. Darnis, L. Fortier, Y. Gratton, H. Link, P. Archambault, A. Sallon, C. Michel, W. J. Williams, B. Philippe, and M. Gosselin, 2011; Climate forcing multiplies biological productivity in the coastal Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18604, doi:10.1029/2011GL048825.

Williams, W. J. and E. C. Carmack, 2008: Combined effect of wind-forcing and isobath divergence on upwelling at Cape Bathurst, Beaufort Sea, Journal of Marine Research, 66, 645-663.

Yamamoto-Kawai, M., F. A. McLaughlin, E. C. Carmack, S. Nishino, K. Shimada, 2009: Aragonite Undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: Effects of Ocean Acidification and Sea Ice Melt, Science, Vol. 326. no. 5956, pp. 1098-1100, doi: 10.1126/science.1174190.

Yamamoto-Kawai, M., M., F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack (2011), Effects of ocean acidification, warming and melting of sea ice on aragonite saturation of the Canada Basin surface water, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L03601, doi:10.1029/2010GL045501.

Yang, J., 2009: Seasonal and interannual variability of downwelling in the Beaufort Sea, J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , C00A14, doi:10.1029/2008JC005084.

Primary Productivity

Arrigo, K. R., and G. L. van Dijken (2011), Secular trends in Arctic Ocean net primary production. Journal of Geophysical Research 116, C09011, doi:10.1029/2011JC007151.

Cavalieri, D., C. Parkinson, P. Gloersen, and H. J. Zwally (2008), Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I Passive Microwave Data. Boulder, Colorado USA: National Snow and Ice Data Center. Digital media.

Gosselin, M., M. Levasseur, P. A. Wheeler, R. A. Horner, and B. C. Booth (1997), New measurements of phytoplankton and ice algal production in the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research-II 44, 1623-1644.

Grebmeier, J. M., S. E. Moore, J. E. Overland, K. E. Frey, and R. R. Gradinger (2010), Biological response to recent Pacific Arctic sea ice retreats. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 91, 161-162.

Kahru, M., V. Brotas, M. Manzano-Sarabia, and B. G. Mitchell (2010), Are phytoplankton blooms occurring earlier in the Arctic? Global Change Biology, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02312.x.

Leu, E., J. E. Søreide, D. O. Hessen, S. Falk-Petersen, and J. Berge (2011), Consequences of changing sea-ice cover for primary and secondary producers in the European Arctic shelf seas: Timing, quantity, and quality. Progress in Oceanography 90, 18-32.

Li, W. K. W., F. A. McLaughlin, C. Lovejoy, and E. C. Carmack (2009), Smallest algae thrive as the Arctic Ocean freshens. Science 326, 539.

Tremblay, J.-É., S. Bélanger, D. G. Barber, M. Asplin, J. Martin, G. Darnis, L. Fortier, Y. Gratton, H. Link, P. Archambault, A. Sallon, C. Michel, W. J. Williams, B. Philippe, and M. Gosselin (2011), Climate forcing multiplies biological productivity in the coastal Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18604, doi:10.1029/2011GL048825.

Wassmann, P. (2011), Arctic marine ecosystems in an era of rapid climate change. Progress in Oceanography 90, 1-17.

Benthic Organisms

Bluhm B. A., Gebruk A.V., Gradinger R., Hopcroft R. R., Huettmann F., Kosobokova K. N., Sirenko S. I., Weslawski J. M. (2011) Arctic marine biodiversity - an update of species richness and examples of biodiversity change. Oceanography 24:232-248.

Grebmeier J. M. (2012) Shifting patterns of life in the Pacific Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas. Ann Rev Mar Sci 4:16.1-16.16 (in press, doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120710-100926).

Piepenburg D., Archambault P., Ambrose W. G. Jr., Blanchard A., Bluhm B. A., Carroll M. L., Conlan K., Cusson M., Feder H. M., Grebmeier J. M., Jewett S. C., Lévesque M., Petryashev V. V., Sejr M. K., Sirenko B., Włodarska-Kowalczuk M. (2011) Towards a pan-Arctic inventory of the species diversity of the macro- and megabenthic fauna of the Arctic shelf seas. Marine Biodiversity 41:51-70.

Polar Bears

Obbard, M.E., Thiemann, G.W., Peacock, E., and DeBruyn, T.D. (eds) (2010). Polar Bears: Proceedings of the 15th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, Copenhagen, Denmark, 29 June-3 July 2009. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. vii + 235 pp.

Regehr, E.V., Lunn, N.J., Amstrup, S.C. & Stirling, I. 2007. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:2673-2683.

Regehr, E.V., Hunter, C.M., Caswell, H., Amstrup, S.C. and Stirling, I. 2010. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 117-127.

Whales and Seals

Ashjian, C. J., S. R. Braund, R. G. Campbell, J. C. George, J. Kruse, W. Maslowski, S. E. Moore, C. R. Nicolson, S. R. Okkonen, B. F. Sherr, E. B. Sherr, and Y. H. Spitz, 2010: Climate Variability, Oceanography, Bowhead Whale Distribution, and Iñupiat Subsistence Whaling near Barrow, Alaska. Arctic, 63, 179-194.

Garlich-Miller, J. L., J. G. MacCracken, J. Snyder, R. Meehan, M. J. Myers, J. M. Wilder, E. Lance, and A. Matz, 2011: Status review of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management, January 2011, Anchorage, AK, 155 pp.

Heide-Jørgensen M. P., K.L. Laidre, L. T. Quakenbush, and J. Citta, 2011: Northwest Passage opens for bowhead whales. Biology Letters, in press.

Heide-Jørgensen M. P., K. L. Laidre, D. Borchers, T. A. Marques, H. Stern, and M. J. Simon, 2010: The effect of sea ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland. Polar Research, 29, 198-208.

Jay C. V., M. S. Udevitz, R. Kwok, A. S. Fischbach, D. C. Douglas, 2010: Divergent movements of walrus and sea ice in the northern Bering Sea. MEPS 407, 293-302.

Jay, C. V., B. G. Marcot, D. C. Douglas, 2011: Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century. Polar Biol., doi:10.1007/s00300-011-0967-4.

Kovacs, K.M., M. Biuw, O.A. Nøst, P. Dodd, E. Hansen, Q. Zhou, M. Fedak, and C. Lydersen, 2011: Seals used as "research assistants" in the polar oceans. International Polar Year 2007-2008: The Norwegian Contribution, O. Orheim and K. Ulstein, Eds., Research Council of Norway, 100-103.

Kovacs, K. M., C. Lydersen, J. E. Overland, and S. E. Moore, 2010: Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals. Mar. Biodiv., doi:10.1007/s12526-010-0061-0.

Laidre, K. L., M. P. Heide-Jørgensen, W. Ermold, and M. Steele, 2010: Narwhals document continued warming of southern Baffin Bay. Journal of Geophysical Research., 115, doi:10.1029/2009JC005820.

Laidre, K. L. and M. P. Heide-Jørgensen, 2011: Life in the lead: extreme densities of narwhals Monodon monoceros in the offshore pack ice. Mar Ecol Prog Ser., 423, 269-278.

Laidre K. L., M. P. Heide-Jørgensen, H. Stern, P. Richard, 2011: Unusual sea ice entrapments and delayed autumn ice-up timing reinforce narwhal vulnerability to climate change. Polar Biology, doi:10.1007/s00300-011-1036-8.

Lydersen, C., M. Biuw, O.A. Nøst, P. Dodd, E. Hansen, Q. Zhou, M.A. Fedak, T. Haug, and K.M. Kovacs, 2010: Satellite tracking of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) in the Greenland Sea using CTD-tags: oceanography and biology. Marine Mammals of the Holarctic: Collection of Scientific Papers after the Sixth International Conference, Kaliningrad, Russia, 11-15 October 2010. pp. 325-327.

Lydersen, C., C. Freitas, Ø. Wiig, L. Bachmann, M. P Heide-Jørgensen, R. Swift, and K. Kovacs, 2011: Lost highway not forgotten: satellite tracking of a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) from the critically endangered Spitsbergen stock. Endangered Species Research, in press.

Moore, S. E., J. C. George, G. Sheffield, J. Bacon, and C. J. Ashjian, 2010: Bowhead Whale Distribution and Feeding near Barrow, Alaska, in Late Summer 2005-06. Arctic, 63, 195-205.

Quakenbush, L. T., J. J. Citta, J. C. George, R. J. Small, and M .P. Heide-Jørgensen, 2010: Fall and winter movements of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the Chukchi Sea and within a petroleum development area. Arctic, 63, 289-307.

Tremblay, J.-É., S. Bélanger, D. G. Barber, M. Asplin, J. Martin, G. Darnis, L. Fortier, Y. Gratton, H. Link, P. Archambault, A. Sallon, C. Michel, W. J. Williams, B. Philippe, and M. Gosselin, 2011; Climate forcing multiplies biological productivity in the coastal Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18604, doi:10.1029/2011GL048825.

Pacific Arctic Marine Ecology

Grebmeier, J. M. 2012: Shifting patterns of life in the Pacific Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas. Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci., 4: 16.1-16.16 (in press, doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-120710-100926).

Grebmeier, J. M, J. E. Overland, S. E. Moore, E. V. Farley, E. C. Carmack, L. W. Cooper, K. E. Frey, J. H. Helle, F. A. McLaughlin, and L. McNutt, 2006b: A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea. Science, 311: 1461-1464.

Lovvorn, J. R., J.M. Grebmeier, L.W. Cooper, J.K. Bump, and J.G. Richman, 2009: Modeling marine protected areas for threatened eiders in a climatically shifting Bering Sea, Ecol. Applic., 19(6), 1596-1613.

Moore, S.E. and H.P. Huntington. 2008. Arctic marine mammals and climate change: impacts and resilience. Ecological Applications 18(2): S157-S165.


Bhatt, U. S, and co-authors, 2008: The atmospheric response to realistic reduced summer arctic sea ice anomalies. Geophysical Monograph Series 180, Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, 91-110.

Bhatt, U. S. and co-authors, 2010: Circumpolar Arctic tundra vegetation change is linked to sea-ice decline. Earth Interactions, 14, 1-20.

Bret-Harte, M.S., G.R. Shaver, F.S. Chapin III. 2002: Primary and secondary stem growth in arctic shrubs: implications for community response to environmental change. Journal of Ecology 90: 251-267.

Elmendorf, S., G. Henry, and co-authors 2010: Assessments of recent tundra change based on repeated vegetation surveys. Abstract GC3B-05 presented at the 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU San Francisco CA, 13-17 Dec 2010.

Forbes, B.C., M. M. Fauria, and P. Zetterberg, 2010: Russian Arctic warming and 'greening' are closely tracked by tundra shrub willows. Global Change Biology, 16, 1542-1554.

Gill, M.J., M.C. Raillard, C. Zockler and R.B. Smith. 2008: Developing an Integrated and Sustained Arctic Biodiversity Monitoring Network: The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Five Year Implementation Plan. CAFF CBMP Report No. 14, CAFF International Secretariat, Akureyri, Iceland.

Gooseff, M. N., A. Balser, W. B. Bowden, and J. B. Jones, 2009: Effects of hillslope thermokarst in Northern Alaska. EOS, 90, 29-36.

Henry, G. H. R., and U. Molau, 1997: Tundra plants and climate change: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Global Change Biology, 3 (Suppl. 1), 1-9.

Hill, G. B., and G. H. R. Henry, 2011: Responses of High Arctic wet sedge tundra to climate warming since 1980. Global Change Biology, 17, 276-287.

Hudson, J. M. G., and G. H. R. Henry, 2009: Increased plant biomass in a High Arctic heath community from 1981 to 2008. Ecology, 90, 2657-2663.

Jia, G. J., H. E. Epstein, and D. A. Walker, 2009: Vegetation greening in the Canadian Arctic related to decadal warming. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 11, 2231-2238.

Johnson, D. R., M. J. Lara, G. R. Shaver, and C. Tweedie, 2010: Herbivory and soil moisture drive long-term patterns of vegetation structure and function in Alaskan coastal tundra: results from resampling historic exclosures at Barrow. Abstract GC43B-0908 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 13-17 Dec 2010.

Lantz, T. C., S. E. Gergel, and G. H. R. Henry, 2010a: Response of green alder (Alnus viridis subsp fruticosa) patch dynamics and plant community composition to fire and regional temperature in north-western Canada. Journal of Biogeography, 37, 1597-1610.

Lantz, T. C, S. E. Gergel, and S. V. Kokelj. 2010b. Spatial heterogeneity in the shrub tundra ecotone in the Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories: Implications for Arctic environmental change. Ecosystems, 13, 194-204.

Lawrence, D. M., A. G. Slater, R. A. Tomas, M. M. Holland, and C. Deser, 2008: Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters, 35: L11506, doi:10.1029/2008GL033985.

Mack, M. C., M. S. Bret-Harte, T. N. Hollingsworth, R. R. Jandt, E. A. G. Schuur, G. R. Shaver, D. L. Verbyla. Novel wildfire disturbance and carbon loss from arctic tundra. Nature, in revision.

Mercado-Diaz, J. A., and W. A. Gould, 2010: Landscape- and decadal scale changes in the composition and structure of plant communities in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range of Arctic Alaska. Abstract GC43B-0982 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec.

Overland, J., M. Wang, and J. Walsh, 2011: Atmosphere. 2010, BAMS Report This volume.

Raynolds, M.K., D.A. Walker, H.E. Epstein, J.E. Pinzon and C.J. Tucker. 2012. A new estimate of tundra-biome phytomass from trans-Arctic field data and AVHRR NDVI. Remote Sensing Letters, 3, 403-411.

Rocha, A., and G. R. Shaver. 2011. Burn severity influences post-fire CO2 exchange in arctic tundra. Ecological Applications, doi:10.1890/10-0255.1.

Stone, R. S., and co-authors, 2010: A three-dimensional characterization of Arctic aerosols from airborne Sun photometer observations PAM-ARCMIP, April 2009. Journal of Geophysical Research, 115, D13203, doi:10.1029/2009JD013605.

Stow, D. A., and coauthors. 2004: Remote sensing of vegetation and land-cover change in arctic tundra ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment, 89: 281-308.

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Troxler, T. G., and co-authors. 2010: Long-term phenological changes in tundra plants in response to experimental warming using the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) Network. Abstract COS 93-10, 95th ESA Annual Meeting, Pittsburg, PA, 1-6 Aug 2010.

Tweedie, C.E., and co-authors, 2010: Decadal time scale change in terrestrial plant communities in North America arctic and alpine tundra: A contribution to the International Polar Year Back to the Future project. Abstract GC53B-03 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, CA, 13-17 Dec 2010.

Walker, D.A., and co-authors, 2010: Vegetation: Special Supplement to Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 91, S115-S116.

Walker. D. A., and co-authors, 2011: Cumulative effects of rapid land-cover and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. Eurasian Arctic Land Cover and Land Use in a Changing Climate, Gutman, G., and Reissel, A., Eds., Springer, 206-236.

Caribou and Reindeer

Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 2011a. Press release - Western Arctic caribou Herd count revised.

Alaska Department of Fish and Game. 2011b. Press release - Porcupine Caribou Herd shows growth.

Campbell, M. Boulanger, J. and Lee, D. in press. Demographic Effects of an Outbreak of Brucella suis On Island Bound Barren-Ground Caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) Southampton Island Nunavut. Presented at the 13th Arctic Ungulate Conference, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, August, 2011.

Campbell, M., Nishi, J. and Boulanger, J. 2010. A calving ground photo survey of the Qamanirjuaq migratory barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) population -- June 2008. Technical Report Series 2010 No. 1-10. Government of Nunavut. 129 p.

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Cuyler C. 2007. West Greenland caribou explosion: What happened? What about the future? Proceedings of the 11th North American Caribou Workshop, Jasper, Alberta, Canada, 23-27 April 2006. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 17: 219-226.

Government of NWT. 2010. Press release - Survey results of Bluenose East caribou herd released. Website:

Gunn, A. and Russell, D.R. 2011. Northern Caribou Population Trends. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends, 2010 Technical Thematic Report Series No. 10. Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, iv+55 p.

Gunn A., Russell, D., White, R. & Kofinas, G. 2009. Facing a Future of Change: Migratory caribou and reindeer. Arctic 62(3): 3-4.

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Kolpashikov, L., V. Makhailov, and D. Russell. In press. The role of harvest in the dynamics of the Taimyr wild reindeer herd: Lessons for North America.

Lenart, E. A. 2009. Units 26B and 26Ccaribou. Pages 299-325 in P. Harper. Editor. Caribou Management report of survey and inventory activities 1 July 2006 - 30 June 2008. Alaska Department of Fish and game. Project 3.0 Juneau, Alaska, USA.

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Parrett, L. S. 2009. Unit 26A. Teshekpuk caribou herd. Pages 271-298 in P. Harper. Editor. Caribou Management report of survey and inventory activities 1 July 2006 - 30 June 2008. Alaska Department of Fisg and game. Project 3.0 Juneau, Alaska, USA.

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Brasnett, B. 1999. A global analysis of snow depth for numerical weather prediction. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 38: 726-740.

Brown, R., C. Derksen, and L. Wang. 2007. Assessment of spring snow cover duration variability over northern Canada from satellite datasets. Remote Sensing of Environment. 111: 367-381.

Brown, R., and Mote, P. 2009. The response of Northern Hemisphere snow cover to a changing climate. Journal of Climate. 22: 2124-2145.

Brown, R., C. Derksen, and L. Wang. 2010. A multi-dataset analysis of variability and change in Arctic spring snow cover extent, 1967-2008. Journal of Geophysical Research. doi:10.1029/2010JD013975.

Brown, R., and Robinson, D. 2011 Northern Hemisphere spring snow cover variability and change over 1922-2010 including an assessment of uncertainty. The Cryosphere. 5: 219-229.

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Dery, S., and R. Brown. 2007. Recent Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent trends and implications for the snow-albedo feedback. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L22504, doi:10.1029/2007GL031474.

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Jia, G. Epstein, H. and Walker, D. 2009 Vegetation greening in the Canadian Arctic related to decadal warming. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 11: 2231-2238.

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Zhang, X., F. W. Zwiers, G. C. Hagerl, F.H. Lambert, N. P. Gillet, S. Solomon, P. A. Stott and T. Nozawa, 2007: Detection of human influences on twentieth-century precipitation trends. Nature doi:10.1038/nature06025.

Glaciers and Ice Caps

Gardner, A. S., G. Moholdt, B. Wouters, G. J. Wolken, J. G. Cogley, D. O. Burgess, M. J. Sharp, C. Braun, and C. Labine, 2011: Sharply increased mass loss from glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Nature, 473, 357-360.

Meier, M. F., M. B. Dyurgerov, U. K. Rick, S. O'Neel, W. T. Pfeffer, R. S. Anderson, S. P. Anderson and A. F. Glazovsky, 2007: Glaciers dominate eustatic sea level rise in the 21st century. Science, 317, 1064-1067.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC), 2010: MODIS subsetted land products, Collection 5. Available on-line [] from ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Accessed September 26, 2011.

Sharp, M., D. O. Burgess, J. G. Cogley, M. Ecclestone, C. Labine, and G. J. Wolken, 2011: Extreme melt on Canada's Arctic ice caps in the 21st century. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L11501, doi:10.1029/2011GL047381.

World Glacier Monitoring Service, 2011: Glacier mass balance data 2008 and 2009. Accessed 2 October 2011.

Greenland Ice Sheet

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Åkerman, H. J., and M. Johansson, 2008: Thawing permafrost and thicker active layers in sub-arctic Sweden. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 19, 279-292. doi:10.1002/ppp.626.

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Christiansen, H.H., B. Etzelmüller, K. Isaksen, H. Juliussen, H. Farbrot, O. Humlum, M. Johansson, T. Ingeman-Nielsen, L. Kristensen, J. Hjort, P. Holmlund, A. B. K. Sannel, C. Sigsgaard, H. J. Åkerman, N. Foged, L. H. Blikra, M. A. Pernosky, and R. Ødegård, 2010: The Thermal State of Permafrost in the Nordic area during the International Polar Year, Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21, 156-181, DOI: 10.1002/ppp.687.

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Isaksen, K., J. L. Sollid, P. Holmlund, and C. Harris, 2007: Recent warming of mountain permafrost in Svalbard and Scandinavia. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, F02S04, doi: 0.1029/2006JF000522.

Jorgenson, M. T, V. E. Romanovsky, J. Harden, Y. L. Shur, J. O'Donnell, T. Schuur, and M. Kanevskiy, 2010: Resilience and vulnerability of permafrost to climate change, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40, 1219-1236.

Mazhitova G.G., 2008: Soil temperature regimes in the discontinuous permafrost zone in the East European Russian Arctic. Eurasian Soil Science Vol.41, N. 1, 48-62.

Oberman, N. G., 2008: Contemporary Permafrost Degradation of Northern European Russia, In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, June 29-July 3, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2008, Vol. 2, 1305-1310.

Oberman, N.G., and I.G. Shesler, 2009: Observed and projected changes in permafrost conditions within the European North-East of the Russian Federation, Problemy Severa I Arctiki Rossiiskoy Federacii (Problems and Challenges of the North and the Arctic of the Russian Federation), Vol. 9, 96-106 (in Russian).

Osterkamp, T.E., 2008: Thermal State of Permafrost in Alaska During the Fourth Quarter of the Twentieth Century (Plenary Paper), In Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, June 29-July 3, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2008, Vol. 2, 1333-1338.

Popova, V. V., and Shmakin, A. B., 2009: The influence of seasonal climatic parameters on the permafrost thermal regime, West Siberia, Russia. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 20, 41-56. doi:10.1002/ppp.640.

Romanovsky, V. E., S. Gruber, A. Instanes, H. Jin, S. S. Marchenko, S.L. Smith, D. Trombotto, and K. M. Walter, 2007: Frozen Ground, Chapter 7, In: Global Outlook for Ice and Snow, Earthprint, UNEP/GRID, Arendal, Norway, pp. 181-200.

Romanovsky, V. E., S. L. Smith, and H. H. Christiansen, 2010a: Permafrost Thermal State in the Polar Northern Hemisphere during the International Polar Year 2007-2009: a synthesis. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21,106-116.

Romanovsky, V. E., D. S. Drozdov, N. G. Oberman, G. V. Malkova, A. L. Kholodov, S. S. Marchenko, N. G. Moskalenko, D. O. Sergeev, N. G. Ukraintseva, A. A. Abramov, D. A. Gilichinsky, and A. A. Vasiliev, 2010b: Thermal State of Permafrost in Russia. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21,136-155.

Romanovsky, V., N. Oberman, D. Drozdov, G. Malkova , A. Kholodov, S. Marchenko, 2011: Permafrost, [in "State of the Climate in 2010"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92 (6), S152-S153.

Shiklomanov, N. I., D. A. Streletskiy, F. E. Nelson, R. D. Hollister, V. E. Romanovsky, C. E. Tweedie, J. G. Bockheim, and J. Brown, 2010: Decadal variations of active-layer thickness in moisture-controlled landscapes, Barrow, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res., 115, G00I04, doi:10.1029/2009JG001248.

Smith, S. L., S. A. Wolfe, D. W. Riseborough, and F. M. Nixon, 2009: Active-layer characteristics and summer climatic indices, Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories, Canada. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 20, 201-220. doi:10.1002/ppp.651.

Smith, S. L., V. E. Romanovsky, A. G. Lewkowicz, C. R. Burn, M. Allard, G. D. Clow, K. Yoshikawa, and J. Throop, 2010: Thermal State of Permafrost in North America - A Contribution to the International Polar Year. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 21,117-135.

Streletskiy D. A, N. I. Shiklomanov, F. E. Nelson, and A. E. Klene, 2008: 13 Years of Observations at Alaskan CALM Sites: Long-term Active Layer and Ground Surface Temperature Trends in Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, edited by D.L. Kane and K.M. Hinkel, pp 1727-1732, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks: Fairbanks Alaska.

Throop, J. L., S. L. Smith, and A. G. Lewkowicz, 2010: Observed recent changes in climate and permafrost temperatures at four sites in northern Canada. In GEO2010, 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference and the 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference. Calgary, Sept 2010. GEO2010 Calgary Organizing Committee, pp. 1265-1272.

Zamolodchikov D., 2008: Recent climate and active layer changes in Northeast Russia: regional output of Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM). Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Permafrost, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Vol. 2, 2021-2027.

Lake Ice

Brown L. C. and C.R. Duguay. 2010. The response and role of ice cover in lake-climate interactions. Progress in Physical Geography, 34(5): 671-704.

Duguay, C.R., T.D. Prowse, B.R. Bonsal, R.D. Brown, M.P. Lacroix, and P. Ménard. 2006. Recent trends in Canadian lake ice cover. Hydrological Processes. 20: 781-801.

Helfrich, S. R., D. McNamara, B.H. Ramsay, T. Baldwin, and T. Kasheta. 2007. Enhancements to, and forthcoming developments in the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). Hydrological Processes. 21: 1576-1586.

Kheyrollah Pour, H., C.R. Duguay, A. Martynov, and L.C. Brown. In review. Simulation of surface temperature and ice cover of large northern lakes with 1-D models: A comparison with MODIS satellite data and in situ measurements. Tellus Series A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography.

Kouraev, A. V., S.V. Semovski, M.N. Shimaraev, N.M. Mognard, B. Légresy, and F. Remy. 2007. Observations of Lake Baikal ice from satellite altimetry and radiometry. Remote Sensing of Environment. 108: 240-253.

Latifovic, R. and D. Pouliot. 2007. Analysis of climate change impacts on lake ice phenology in Canada using the historical satellite data record. Remote Sensing of Environment. 106: 492-508, 2007.

River Discharge

Bosilovich Michael G., Junye Chen, Franklin R. Robertson, Robert F. Adler. (2008), Evaluation of Global Precipitation in Reanalyses. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 47:9, 2279-2299.

Rahmstorf, S. (2002), Ocean circulation and climate during the past 120,000 years. Nature 419, 207-214.

Rawlins, M.A., Lammers, R.B., Frolking, S., Vörösmarty, C.J. (2006), Simulated Runoff and Evapotranspiration across Alaska: Model Sensitivity to Climate and Land Cover Drivers, Earth Interactions, 10, doi: 10.1175/EI182.1.

Rienecker, M.M.. M.J. Suarez, R. Todling, J. Bacmeister, L. Takacs, H.-C. Liu, W. Gu, M. Sienkiewicz, R.D. Koster, R. Gelaro, and I. Stajner, (2008), The GEOS-5 Data Assimilation System - Documentation of Versions 5.0.1 and 5.1.0. NASA GSFC Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Data Assimilation. NASA/TM-2007-104606, 27, 95pp.

Shiklomanov A. I. and Lammers R. B., 2009: Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis. Environ. Res. Lett. 4 045015 (9pp). doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045015.

Shiklomanov, A. I., R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, L. C. Smith, and T. M. Pavelsky, (2007), Temporal and spatial variations in maximum river discharge from a new Russian data set, J. Geophys. Res, 112, G04S53, doi:10.1029/2006JG000352.

Wisser, D., B. M. Fekete, C. J. Vörösmarty, and A. H. Schumann (2010): Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H), Hydrology and Earth System Science, 14, 1-24.

River Biogeochemistry

Cooper, L., R. Benner, J. McClelland, B. Peterson, R. Holmes, R. Raymond, D. Hansell, J. Grebmeier, and L. Codispoti. 2005. Linkages among runoff, dissolved organic carbon, and the stable oxygen isotope composition of seawater and other water mass indicators in the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research 110:G02013, doi:1029/2005JG000031.

Cooper, L. W., J. W. McClelland, R. M. Holmes, P. A. Raymond, J. J. Gibson, C. K. Guay, B.J. Peterson. 2008. Flow-weighted values of runoff tracers (δ18O, DOC, Ba, alkalinity) from the six largest arctic rivers. Geophysical Research Letters, L18606, doi:10.1029/2008GL035007.

Déry, S. J., M. A. Hernandez-Henriquez, J. E. Burford, and E. F. Wood. 2009. Observational evidence of an intensifying hydrological cycle in northern Canada. Geophysical Research Letters 36:L13402, doi:13410.11029/12009GL038852.

Holmes, R. M., J. W. McClelland, B. J. Peterson, S. E. Tank, E. Bulygina, T. I. Eglinton, V. V. Gordeev, T. Y. Gurtovaya, P. A. Raymond, D. J. Repeta, R. Staples, R. G. Striegl, A. V. Zhulidov, and S. A. Zimov. 2011. Seasonal and annual fluxes of nutrients and organic matter from large rivers to the Arctic Ocean and surrounding seas. Estuaries and Coasts, DOI 10.10007/s12237-011-9386-6.

McClelland, J. W., S. J. Dery, B. J. Peterson, R. M. Holmes, and E. F. Wood. 2006. A pan-arctic evaluation of changes in river discharge during the latter half of the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L06715, doi:06710.01029/02006GL025753.

Peterson, B. J., R. M. Holmes, J. W. McClelland, C. J. Vorosmarty, R. B. Lammers, A. I. Shiklomanov, I. A. Shiklomanov, and S. Rahmstorf. 2002. Increasing river discharge to the Arctic Ocean. Science 298:2171-2173.

Raymond, P. A., J. W. McClelland, R. M. Holmes, A. V. Zhulidov, K. Mull, B. J. Peterson, R. G. Striegl, G. R. Aiken, and T. Y. Gurtovaya. 2007. Flux and age of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A carbon isotopic study of the five largest arctic rivers. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 21:GB4011, doi:4010.1029/2007GB002934.

Runkel, R. L., C. G. Crawford, and T. A. Cohn. 2004. Load Estimator (LOADEST): A FORTRAN Program for Estimating Constituent Loads in Streams and Rivers. Page 69 p. U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Book 4.